Typhoid fever : Causes, Symptoms, Treatment


In this blog, I will give you information about typhoid fever.

This fever is caused by bacteria named as salmonella typhi and salmonella paratyphi bacteria.

Fevers like malaria, dengue, chickungunya, etc., are easy to diagnose by symptoms and laboratory investigations. Typhoid fever is difficult to diagnose, in initial days by symptoms and lab investigation. After a week of fever, typhoid becomes positive in blood report like widal test. We learn Typhoid fever in below format


  • This fever caused by bacteria named as salmonella typhi and salmonella paratyphi.
  • typhoid spread by infected food and water
    fecal oral route

    It spread by fecal-oral route.
    Typhoid positive patient have bacteria in toilet. Fecal-oral route means pathogens in fecal particle pass from one person to the mouth of other person. It can be spread by infected food or water.



  • High grade fever (103-104 F)
  • Fever is step ladder pattern
    It means it increases day by day
  • Headache, bodyache and myalgia
  • Constipation or diarrhoea
  • loss of appetite
  • Bradycardia.
    Generally when temperature rises pulse also increases but in typhoid fever pulse decreases. It’s called bradycardia. It is characteristic point of typhoid fever.


  • Rose spot on abdomen & back
  • Abdominal distension and pain
  • Dry coryza


We cannot diagnose typhoid fever in early days. After 7 days of fever, typhoid will be positive in Widal test.

If someone have repeated fever history than doctor may do Widal test in initial days otherwise it will do after 5 to 7 days.
Drawback of this Widal test is it remains positive in blood approx 6 months after recovery.

  1. Complete blood count (CBC)
    Decreasing White blood cell may create doubt of typhoid fever, if other causes of fever are rule out.
    Platelet count also decrease in typhoid.
  2. Blood culture
  3. Stool culture
  4. Widal test

If this fever not diagnosed on not giving proper treatment then there is chances of complication. So timely diagnosis and proper treatment is necessary.


If untreated then complication may arise like

  • Delirium
  • Intestinal perforation / intestinal hemorrhage
  • Bone and joint infection
  • Meningitis – inflammation of brain
  • Nephritis – inflammation of kidney
  • Cholecystitis – inflammation of gallbladder

So to avoid this kind of problems one should not be careless in long duration of fever.


  • Diet
    In this disease, bacteria accumulate in intestine. So, diet must be light.
    Diet must be like dal,chawal, khichdi like light food.
    Fried, spicy, fast-food not allowed for period of month.
  • Drink more water & preferably boiled water
  • Multivitamins for enhance immunity
  • Antibiotics like cephalosporin group & fluoroquinolone group for 14 days


  • Drink clean & boiled water.
  • Fruits and vegetables should be washed throughly before use.
  • Avoid food at unhygienic place & cooked food must be cover at home.
  • Wash your hand after going to toilet & wash hand properly before taking food.
  • Vaccine also available for typhoid.

Hope you like the article. If you have any kind of query, kindly mail or massage me.