Parkinson’s disease : Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

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In this article, I will give information regarding Parkinson’s disease.

This topic was described by James Parkinson. So, this disease is called Parkinson’s disease. It is neurodegenerative disease.Parkinson disease

Neuro = Neuron (brain cell)
Degenerative = destroy
It simply means, in this disease there is destroying of brain cells. Location of breakdown of brain cells occured in basal ganglion part.

Brain cell damage in the brain causes dopamine levels to drop. As a result patient may suffer from complain like tremoring, rigidity, slowness of movement, etc.

Parkinson’s disease mostly occur at/after the age of 60 years.  It is slow progressive disease. Symptom not appear over night, it takes years to be problematic to patient. Only 2 persons / 1000 people suffer from this disease.

We learn this disease, in below format

CAUSES OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE

  1. Unknown
    Most of the time, we will not find particular reason behind occuring of this disease.
  2. Genetic
    It may be genetic, it runs in the family.
  3. Medicines
    Taking drugs like reserpine, phenothiazine for long period may cause it.
  4. Exposure to pesticides, manganese poisoning, etc.
  5. Head injury
  6. Cerebral arteriosclerosis
  7. Tuberculosis or tumour
  8. Post encephalitis

SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE

  1. Tremoring

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD), tremor is different from other kind of tremor. PD tremor mostly occur while rest, but if patient start doing some activity than tremor goes.Its called “drum beating type of tremor” because movement occur in tremoring is like we are beating the drum.Parkinson’s tremor also known as “pill rolling tremor” because thumb come across index finger repeatedly, looks like making medicine (pill).

  2.  Slowness of movement

    In Parkinson’s disease, patient’s movement become that much slow that simple task is challengeable for patient like go to toilet, to do shave, close shirt buttons, etc.Facial expression also goes as disease advances. Even patient can not give smile properly in this disease. In a way, patient looks like statue.Finally, face become mask like. When we look toward patient, we feels that he/she is starring to us. Patient is not doing it intentionally, but it happens in Parkinson’s disease.

  3. Rigidity

    Rigidity means stiffness. In PD rigidity occurs to neck, back and leg. The stiff muscle can be painful and limit your range of motion.Leg becomes so much stiff that it looks like pipe. It is called lead pipe rigidity.When stiffness occur to upper extremity, it looks like cogwheel type. So, it is called cogwheel rigidity.

  4. Impaired posture and balance

    parkinson's disease rigidity
    Parkinson’s disease

    In Parkinson’s disease, patient appearance is not normal. He/she bends forward.Generally, our hand moves while walking. But in PD patient’s hand not move while walking.

    Patient walks in small steps and steps close to the ground. Patient falls repeatedly.

  5. Speech changes

    Slurred, repeat same words, fear of speaking.

  6. Anxiety, depression, dementia

DIAGNOSIS

There is no tests can conclusively show that you have Parkinson’s disease. No blood test or other tests will help to do so. Mostly, diagnosis made by sign & symptoms, medical history and a detailed physical examination.

CT scan, MRI helpful to rule out other neurological diseases.

TREATMENT

Although there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, treatment will help to reduce the main symptoms and maintain quality of life for as long as possible.

  1. Medicines given which increase dopamine level like levodopa, dopamine agonists.
  2. Physiotherapy
    A physiotherapist can work with you to relieve muscle stiffness and joint pain through movement and exercise.Physiotherapist doctor aims to make moving easier and improve your walking and flexibility.
  3. Yoga, meditation, massage, accupressure will be helpful to patient.
  4. Surgery
    Removing of basal ganglion part
    Deep brain stimulation