In this blog, we will learn about parasite, parasitic worms & about albendazole medicine.
Actually I want to write blog only on albendazole medicine but I think that if I give basic information along with that than it will be more helpful.
A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its food from or at the expense of its host.
It means that parasite lives on or in host organism and harm the host by taking their nutrition. There are main three classes of parasite as below.
- Helminths (worms)
Protozoa is single celled animal found worldwide in most of the habitats. We can not see by naked eye, protozoa are microscopic unicellular eukaryotes.
Eg. Malaria is caused by plasmodium protozoa.
The parasites which lives on the body surface of the host without penetrating to tissues are known as ectoparasite.
Ticks, mite and lice are the example of ectoparasite.
Parasitic worms also known as helminths. Helminths are multicellular animals whom we can see by naked eyes.
There are many types of parasitic worm. We will learn about few worms in simple language.
Tapeworm also known as cestodes are multisegmented flattened tape like worm. So, worm is name as tapeworm.
Size of tapeworm is ranges from few millimeters to several meters. Adult worm found in the small intestine of humans.
Many animals can be infect by this worm such as Dog, Cattle, Pig, etc. Toilet of this infected animal have eggs of this worm. From fecal oral route, human can be infected by this worm.
2. FLUKES (TREMATODES)
Flukes are unsegmented worm, which are flat and broad. They looks like the leaf of tree or a flatfish as you can see in image. (Flukes means flatfish)
It spread by infected water from snail or by eating uncooked infected fish.
Structure of this worm is looks like whip hence known as whipworm.
It spread by infected food and water.
There is hook like Structure in this worm. So, hookworm name is given.
Above image will be helpful to understand hook worm life cycle. This worm is present in infected person’s toilet (stool). The egg of this worm is present in soil due to infected person’s toilet. When we walk by bare feet, the larvae of this worm may enter in sole. This is very interesting that once worm enter in blood stream, they reach upto lungs. While coughing from lungs, they may finally go to intestine.
5. THREAD OR PIN WORM
Due to thread like structure, this worm is known as thread or pin worm.
It spread by ingesting infected food, water.
Adult worms mostly found in the caecum, appendix, and adjacent portion of ascending colon. Within 4 to 8 weeks of ingesting eggs, female worm starts to put eggs near anus. When worm crawls out of the anus to lay eggs, it leads to intense itching and scratching near anal area.
6. ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES (ROUND WORM)
They are large cylindrical worms, with tapering ends, the anterior end being more pointed than the posterior.
Ascaris lumbricoides is the “largest roundworm” of humans. Adult male worm measures approx 15 – 30 cm while adult female measures approx 20 – 40 cm in length.
We getting roundworm infection by ingesting larvae through infected water or food.
Now we will learn about albendazole medicine which used to treat worm infection. We will understand medicine in below format.
- Mode of action
- Special precaution
- Threadworm or pinworm
- Tapeworm infections like hydatid disease or cysticercosis
- Mixed infections
MODE OF ACTION
It has vermicidal, scolicidal and larvicidal actions.
It inhibits tubulin polymerization in parasite and it blocks glucose uptake. Without glucose uptake worm can not survive for long time. Energy level reduce and finally death of parasite results.
Above 2 years of age – 400mg tablet given totally three times in 14 days interval.
Children 1 to 2 years – 200mg liquid given totally three times in 14 days gap in between. Above two years of age, dosage remains same as adult.
It’s in general dosage, but it can be vary from different type of worm infection. In hydatid disease by tapeworm infection, albendazole 400mg twice daily for 28 days given.
Onset of effect is within 2-4 hours.
Each and every molecule which have effect, it also have side effect. But it occurs to them, who have sensitivity to particular molecule. Below list are of albendazole side effect.
- Nausea or vomiting
- Epigastric distress
- Dry mouth
- Leucopenia (low white blood cell count)
- Hypospermia (low speed count)
This medicine should be use cautionly in below conditions.
- Kidney problem
- Liver problem
- Bone marrow depression
PREVENTION OF WORM DISEASE
- Maintain hygiene
- Frequently hand wash. Hand wash before taking food & hand wash after going to toilet.
- Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly
- Take covered and cooked food
Hope you like the article. To read similar articles in simple language, kindly go through our website “beyourdoctorweb.com”. For any kind of query or help, kindly mail me or comment me.