Malaria : Causes, SYmptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

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In this article, we will learn about Malaria fever.

malaria mosquito
anopheles

Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease, it transmitted by female anopheline mosquito. There are 4 types of malaria named as P.vivex, P.falciparum, P.ovale and P.malaria.

Mostly malarial patient comes to clinic with complain of fever with severe chill which last for short time with headache, bodyache. Fever may comes at alternate day or at particular time is characteristic symptoms of malaria. To treat malaria patient is very simple but if not diagnosed at proper time than it may be complicated.

Here we learn

LIFE CYCLE OF MALARIA PARASITES

malaria mosquito parasite life cycle
malaria parasite life cycle

It is very simple & very important. As you can see in image that once infected mosquito bite us, sporozoites enters in our body. It goes to liver & multiply there.

After few days, sporozoites becomes merozoite, and it leave the liver and goes to blood stream where it enters in red cells. As you can see in image that in Red cells ring formation started.

This ring enlarged and merozoite convert into trophozoite in red cells. After that schizont formed & this schizont rupture. It causes fever with severe chill while it rupturing. It releases merozoite to blood stream. This cycle continous repeating till taking treatment.

SYMPTOMS

Symptoms of malaria is depends on type of malarial infection.

If infection by P.vivex or P.ovale than fever may comes at alternate day.
In P.malariae fever may comes at every 3rd day.
If caused by P.falciparum than fever may be continuous or reccurent for 36-48 hours. It is most dangerous than other form of malaria.

  • Fever with severe chill – Chills continue even if patient covers by 4-5 blankets.
  • Headache
  • Bodyache
  • Dry cough
  • vomiting
  • Loss of appetite & weakness

For better understanding and diagnosis of this fever, we understand symptoms in 3 stages.

  1. Cold stage

    This stage of chill last for only half hour.Patient have severe chill from head to foot,his teeth chatter & chill can not control by covering 3-4 blankets.Temperature rises in this stage.

  2. Hot stage

    In this stage, chill period over & patient feels intense heat.Patient throwing off the blankets.Fever is continue with this stage & it lasts for 3-4 hours.

  3. Sweating stage

    Temperature declines rapidly with feeling of relief.Patient having profuse perspiration in sweating stage.
    These 3 stages repeat at next day or alternate if not treated with antimalarial medicines.

DIAGNOSIS

It is very important part because timely diagnosis will help to patient with early recovery & no complications.

  • Clinical diagnosis – when patient give history of fever with chill, fever at particular time or at alternate day, on examination spleen is enlarged than we can diagnose it clinically.
  • CBC report – It is general report of Complete blood count, it is not specific report of malaria.
    If platelet & White blood cells decreasing in CBC report than it create doubt of malaria, dengue or other viral fever.
    So, by doing CBC report many times we got information of which reports we need to do further.
  • Specific report – We can do malarial parasite PS report by blood in which with help of microscope we come to know about malaria fever is positive or not.
    Kit for malaria is also available in which it detects antigen & antibody from our blood. It is very simple & helpful in diagnosis.

TREATMENT

Proper treatment of malaria is needed because if parasite remains in body than repeated fever may occur and patient may suffer from complications.

Below antimalarial medicines are given for treatment of malaria fever. Your doctor will choose one of the below medicine to treat malaria

  • Chloroquine
  • Quinine
  • Artesunate intravenous injection
  • Artemether + lumefantrine tablet
  • alpha,beta- arteether intramuscular injection for 3 to 5 days
  • Primaquine tablet for 14 days for clearance of P.vivex after first line treatment, as above described

COMPLICATIONS

We need to do diagnosis as early as possible & do proper treatment to avoid complications. But if it arise, it may create problems as mention below

  • Pneumonia
  • Acute renal failure
  • Low B.P. – Systolic BP below 70mm hg.
  • Sugar – sugar level goes below 40mg/dl
  • Anaemia
  • Jaundice, etc.

Hope you like the article. Kindly message or mail me if you have any kind of query.