In this blog, I give you information regarding body temperature. This is very interesting and important topic. We must have basic information regarding our body temperature.
Normal temp in human is 37 C (98.6 F), when measured by placing the clinical thermometer in the mouth (oral). We learn this topic in below format.
- How to measure body temperature
- Interpretation of temperature
- Living organism types by temp.
- Variation of body temperature
- Regulation of body temp.
HOW TO MEASURE BODY TEMPERATURE
We can measure temperature by placing the clinical thermometer in different parts of the body such as:
- Mouth (oral temp)
- Axilla (axillary temp)
- Rectum (rectal temp)
- Over the skin (surface temp)
Axillary temperature is slight lower than oral temp (approx 0.5 to 1 F)
Rectal temperature is slight higher than oral temp (approx 0.5 to 1 F)
Interpretation of Temperature
99 to 100 F – mild fever
100 to 103 F – moderate fever
103 to 105 F – high fever
> 105 F – hyperpyrexia
LIVING ORGANISM TYPES
There are two types of living organism depending upon the regulation of temperature.
Homeothermic animals are the animals in which the temperature is maintain at a constant level, irrespective of the environmental temperature.
It means that how much environmental temperature increases or decreases, it doesn’t matter. Body temperature remains constant.
Birds and mammals including man belongs to this category. Homeothermic also known as warm-blooded animals.
Poikilothermic animals are the animals in which the temperature of body is not constant. It varies according to environmental temp.
It means that body temperature continuously changing. Body temperature increases or decreases with environmental temp.
Amphibians and reptiles are the poikilothermic animals. These animals are also known as cold-blooded animals.
VARIATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE
In children, the temperature is slightly (0.5 C) more than in adults because of more physical activities.
In old age, since the heat production is less, the body temperature decreases slightly.
In females, the body temperature is less because of low basal metabolic rate, when compare to males.
But at the time of ovulation, temperature rises (0.5 to 1 C) in females.
In early morning, the temperature is slight less than normal & it reaches the maximum in afternoon.
After meal, exercise & in emotional conditions body temperature increases slightly.
During sleep, the body temperature decreases by 0.5 C.
Pathological variation means it occurs due to some abnormal condition.
Abnormal increase in body temperature is called fever or hyperthermia.
Abnormally decreased body temperature is called hypothermia.
REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE
It is regulated by hypothalamus in brain. Which helps to maintain normal body temperature through heat loss and heat gain centre.
HEAT LOSS CENTRE
When body temperature increases, hypothalamus start works to lower temperature by cutaneous vasodilation and sweating.
HEAT GAIN CENTRE
When body temperature decreases, our body needs heat. At that point of time, heat gain centre works to produce heat in our body. This happens by two way, as mention below.
We all feel shivering when our body temperature decreases. During shivering, enormous heat is produced because of severe muscular activities.
Prevention of heat loss
When body temperature decreases, hypothalamus causes cutaneous vasoconstriction. This leads to decrease in blood flow to skin and so the heat loss is prevented.
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